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XXIII. Monograph of the Gemis Cryptocerus, lelonging to
the Group Cryptoceridse— i^amJ/y UyrmmA^- Division
Hymenoptera Heterogyna. By F. Smith, Esq.
[Read 7th March, 1853.]
There is no genus with which we are acquainted amongst the
Formkida which exhibits such eccentricities of form as are met
within Cryptocerus; indeed, independent of variation in general
habit, the differences of the form of parts is so great in some
species, that at first sight they would appear to belong to distinct
genera: a careful study of a number of individuals soon shows us
that these apparently broad distinctions are but modifications ot
one normal type of structure. Taking the type of the genus
C. atratus, and attentively studying it, we find m the different
individuals which follow, some differing in the addition to or dimi-
nution of the number of spines which usually arm the head and
thorax; others having the shield of the head, or lateral produced
margins, terminating more or less suddenly before reaching the
posterior angles of the head ; in one instance only do we find the
margin continued entirely round, forming the exact model of a
dish This expansion appears to be at the expense of ^ diminution
of other appendages, the thorax as well as the nodes of the abdo-
men are destitute of spines, and all other parts are of the simplest
construction. „ , - „
I have thought it desirable to give figures of the sexes of all
the species of which I could obtain specimens for that purpose.
An additional interest will arise from the discovery of the males of
two species; for this valuable information 7J>-« '"•y^^^"' '^^^
industry and the acuteness of observation of Mr. H W Bates, to
whom Entomology is under such lasting obligations for the elucida-
tion of so many points of obscurity, not the least interesting of which
is the discovery of the males of Cryptocerus. From Mr. Bates s
notes I copied the following observation: "The three sexes were
taken in company in a decaying tree, in which the.r burrows were
formed •"• iudging from the number of specimens sent— two males
and about a dozen of each of the other sexes-we may reason-
ably conclude that their societies are not very numerous. In their
habits we have been informed by Lund that the spec.es are com-
paratively solitary, lying in wait and springing upon their prey m
L manner of a hunting spider, to which indeed they bear a
• This note applies to the discovery of the sexes of C. elupeau,,.
214 Mr. F. Smith's Monoc/raph
The number of previously described species appears to be
twenty ; to this I now add fifteen, making the total thirty-five.
From these I propose to remove the species of the Old World,
four in number, and form a new genus for their reception ; and a
second new genus I create for two other species, differing very
materially from all others in having the abdomen peduncu-
lated and rounded in the females, the neuration of their wings
being also quite distinct from Cryptocerus. When a knowledge
of all the sexes shall have been obtained, it will in all probability
be necessary to make further subdivisions. Indeed, I retain in the
genus Cryptocerus a species from Adelaide with some reluctance ;
but having only one specimen, I leave it there for future investi-
gation, being unwilling to destroy it by dissecting. In its antennae
I cannot detect more than ten joints, all other neuters having
eleven ; the basal joint of the ilagellum is frequently hidden in a
cavity at the apex of the scape, but such does not appear to be
the case in the species from Adelaide.
Having the means of describing for the first time the male and
female of a closely allied genus, the Daceton of Perty, 1 have
given both descriptions and figures of the sexes ; this genus, in
the neuration of the wings, will be found very nearly to agree
with the genus Cryptocerus.
I have also added to my present memoir a description of a new
and allied genus from New Zealand, very remarkable for having
only five joints in the antennae of the workers.
I have much pleasure in recording still further obligations to
Mr. Bates, who discovered the male and female of the genus
Daceton ; both sexes are in the collection of the British Museum.
I am greatly indebted to my friend Mr. Westwood for the per-
mission to describe four new species from his collection ; nine
new species are described from specimens in my own cabinet,
the possession of which in the first instance induced me to under-
take a monograph of the genus Cryptocerus,
Genus 1. Cryptocerus.
Formica, pt. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fabr.pt. Syst. Ent. S95 ;
Spec. Ins. i. 310; Ent. Syst. ii. S69, 54; Oliv.
End. Meth. vi. 500 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 272.
Cryptocerus, Latr. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiii. 260 ; Gen.
Crust. Ins. 132; Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418; Klug,
Entom. Monog. 200; St. Farg. Hym. i. 170;
Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 424.
of the Genus Cryptocerus. 215
Sexes three ; female and worker furnished with a sting, sides
of the head expanded, partly concealing the eyes, having on each
side beneath the produced margin a longitudinal channel before
the eyes ; antennae stout, clavate, reposing in the lateral channel ;
scape of the antennae grooved beneath for the reception of the
basal joints of the flagellum ; labrum transverse, its anterior
margin deeply notched ; labial palpi 3-jointed, each of about
equal length ; maxillary palpi 5-jointed, the first joint short, sub-
globose, the second about the length of the two following, the
apical joint the same length as the third and fourth ; maxillary
apical lobe somewhat rounded, slightly produced and pointed at
the apex ; superior wings having one marginal and two sub-mar-
ginal cells ; and one small discoidal cell, sub-quadrate and narrowed
towards the submarginal. Abdonnen elongate in the females ;
ovate, or globose in the workers.
Males elongate, slender; the head not produced at the sides;
ocelli prominent (smaller in the females and wanting in the
workers) ; wings ample, neuration as in the females ; legs elongate ;
abdomen small, attached to the thorax by two basal nodes.
Obs. — Latrielle in his Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. p. 132, says the
labial palpi consist of four joints. I have examined both labial and
maxillary palpi of females and workers of C. atratus, under a
powerful microscope, and can only detect three labial and five
maxillary joints in the palpi. Fabricius, Syst. Piez., p. 419, gives
labial palpi 4-jointed, maxillary palpi 6-jointed.
1. Cryptocerus atratus. (PI. XIX. figs. 1, 2.)
Formica atratus, Linu. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fab. Syst. Ent. 395,
24 ; Spec. Ins. i. 493, 33 ; Mantis. Ins. i.
310, 40; Ent. Syst. ii. 363, 54; Oliv.
Encycl. Meth. vi. 609 ; Latr. Hist. Nat.
Fourm. 272, tab. xii. fig. 74 a.
Formica quadridens, De Geer, Ins. iii. 609, 7, tab.31, fig. 17 — 20.
Cryptocerus marginatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 419, 2, $.
atratus, Latr. Hist. Nat. xiii. 260, tab. cii. fig. 1 ;
Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418, 1 j Klug, Entora.
Monog. 200, 1 ; St. Farg. Hym. i. 1 70, 1 ;
Guerin, Icon. R. Anim, 424, tab. 69, fig. 3;
Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino. (Ser. Sec.)
Tom. xii. I. 63.
Hab. Brazil ; Cayenne ; Surinam.
216 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
2. Cryptocerus dubitatus, new sp. (PL XX. fig. 1.)
Male. — Length 6 lines. Head and thorax black, rugose-punc-
tate ; the stemtnata placed forwards on the vertex ; antenna;
ferruginous. Thorax, the collar produced at the anterior angles
into a short acute tooth ; the metathorax is also produced at the
posterior angles into a sharp spine ; the wings ferruginous. Legs
ferruginous, the coxae and trochanters black. Abdomen, the two
nodes black, the rest ferruginous.
This insect was in my possession some time before Mr. Bates
discovered the male of C. clypeatus. I had placed it with " C.
atratus" as being probably its male, but I had no other evidence
of its being a male Cryptocerus than the circumstance of its agree-
ing in the neuration of the wings with that genus ; from its size 1
still suspect it to be the male of " atratus," I have seen no second
3. Cryptocerus Mthiops, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 9.)
Neuter. — Length S J lines. Black, opaque, lateral margins of the
head dilated, and slightly raised, within which is an indistinct
longitudinal ferruginous stripe ; at the posterior angles of the
head are two acute spines, and in front of each eye, beneath the
dilated margin, is a short tooth visible from above ; at the vertex
of the head are also two minute spines. At the anterior angles
of the thorax is a short spine or tooth, behind which is a stout
elongate spine, bidentate at the apex ; the posterior angles are
also armed with acute spines, which curve outwardly ; the
nodes of the abdomen unarmed ; abdomen globose, deeply emar-
ginate in front, the emargination receiving the posterior node,
The head, thorax and nodes of tlie abdomen have distant large
shallow punctures ; abdomen very delicately shagreened, polished
on the disc, and having a few scattered punctures.
In the Collection of the British Museum, and of my own.
4. Cryptocerus oculatus.
Cryptocerus oculatus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, ser. 2m. tom.xii.
of the Genus Crt/ptocerus. 217
5, Cryptocerus clypeaius. (PI. XXI. fig. 1, 2, 5 & 6.)
Gryptocerus clypeatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 3, (worker) ;
Perty, Delec. ; Klug, Entom. Monog. 207, 6; Guerin,
Icon. R. Anim. 426, 6.
Male. — Length 3| lines. Head and thorax black, rugose, and
having on the disc of the thorax a thinly scattered fulvous pubes-
ence; antennae and legs pale ferruginous; wings sub-hyaline,
nervures pale testaceous, stigma ferruginous ; a dark cloud com-
mences just within the first sub-marginal cell, occupies the mar-
ginal one, and passes along the anterior margin to the apeK of the
wing. Abdomen ferrugineo-testaceous, highly polished, the first
node black, the second stained at the sides.
Female. — Length 6 lines. Entirely of a reddish-yellow, smooth
and shining ; the flagellura of the antennae fuscous ; the lateral
margins of the head raised, at the posterior angles a short acute
spine, another acute spine immediately behind each posterior
sterama; the anterior angles of the thorax acute; the lateral
angles of the metathorax produced into stout obtuse spines,
disc of the thorax somewhat flattened. Wings sub-hyaline, the
nervures at the base of the wings pale, darker towards their
apex ; a dark cloud occupies the marginal cell and passes off
along the anterior margin of the wing to the apex ; the nervures
of the wings have a narrow cloud running their entire length.
Abdomen elongate, flattened above, having at the basal and apical
angles an ovate yellow macula, surrounded by a fuscous ring.
Hab. Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq.
In the British Museum, and other Collections.
6. Cryptocerus membranaceus.
Reddish-brown, punctured ; head and thorax spinose, the abdo-
men having a pale membranaceous margin.
Cryptocerus membranaceus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon.
R. Anim. 426. (Worker.)
Length 3 lines.
7. Cryptocerus quadriguttaius.
Reddish-brown : abdomen ovate, and having four large yellow
spots, and between the pairs a transverse black band.
Cryptocerus ii-gultalus, Gu6r. Icon. R. Anim. 425. (Worker.)
Length 3| lines. .
Hab. Columbia ; Bolivia ; Amazons, Brazil.
218 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
8. Cri/ptocerus elongatus.
Black, elongate ; thorax anteriorly and posteriorly bispinose.
Cryptocerus elongatus, Klug, Entom. Monog. $ ; Guerin,
Icon. R. Anira. 42C.
Length 5 lines.
Hab. Brazil (Para).
9. Cryptocerus pallens.
Pallid, depressed ; head and thorax angulate ; petiole very short,
Cryptocerus pallens, Klug, Ent. Monog.; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim.
Length ]J line.
10. Cryptocerus argentatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 7.)
Female, — Length 5 lines. Shining black : head finely and dis-
tantly punctured, rounded in front, and convex above ; the stem-
mata placed in a triangle, wide apart ; the lateral raised margins
of the head narrow, commencing in front opposite the base of
the mandibles, and gradually narrowing backwards to the pos-
terior angles of the head, which are acute ; prothorax acute at
the anterior lateral angles, the metathorax on each side at the
posterior angles forming a long spine curving slightly upwards ;
the first node of the abdomen produced on each side into a sharp
stout spine curving upwards ; the second node also has anteriorly
on each side a stout acute spine curving upwards ; the abdomen
very smooth and shining, and having on each side, nearly
touching the basal angle, an ovate yellow macula, which is
sprinkled over with silvery scales or hairs ; the apical segments
are covered with silvery hairs ; the wings fusco-hyaline, the thorax
minutely and distantly punctured, the legs are sprinkled with
short silvery hairs above.
In my own Collection.
11. Cryptocerus D'Orblgnyanus, Westw. MSS., new sp. -
(PI. XIX. fig. 5.)
Female. — Length 4 lines. Black : head and thorax covered,
with shallow punctures, the abdomen delicately and very closely
punctured, the entire insect sprinkled with minute golden hairs ;
the produced lateral margins of the head rufo-testaceous an-
of the Genus Cryptocerus. 219
teriorly, the mandibles and antennae of the same colour. Thorax,
the anterior and posterior angles acute, forming short spines ;
wings slightly fuscous, stigma fuscous, nervures pale testaceous ;
legs ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen produced in
the middle laterally into a short acute spine, the second node
has on each side anteriorly a recurved spine. Abdomen elongate,
narrowing slightly towards the base.
Plab. South America.
Of this species I have only seen the single specimen kindly lent
to me by Mr. Westwood for description.
12. Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus. (PL XIX. fig. 8.)
Black, elongate ; tlie head convex above, rounded in front, the
abdomen having four yellow maculae.
Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus, Klug, Ent. Monog. 5; Guerin,
Icon. R. Anim. 426.
Length 3J lines.
Hab. Brazil. In my own Collection.
13. Cryptocerus depressus.
Black : the head anteriorly testaceous at the sides, posteriorly
bispinose ; the petiole spinose.
Cryptocerus depressus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R.
Length 2 lines.
Hab. Rio Janeiro.
14. Cryptocerus umbraculalus,
Rufo-testaceous, margins of the head flavescent, thorax having
a spine at the anterior angles ; abdomen ovate, yellow, and having
two transverse black stripes connected by a central stripe.
Cryptocerus umbraculatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 4 ; Klug, Entom.
Monog. 210, 8 ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426, 8.
Length 4| lin.
Hab. South America.
15. Cryptocerus femor alls, West. MSS., new sp. (PI, XX. fig. 3.)
Neuter. — Length 2| lines. Black: the head, thorax and legs
covered with shallow punctures, each containing a minute glitter-
ing scale or hair ; the lateral margins of the head expanded before
220 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
the eyes, the margin testaceous, the hinder angles acute ; tlie
antennae sprinkled with glittering hairs ; the sides of the thorax
in front testaceous, the anterior portion transverse quadrate,
behind which the sides are deeply notched, the notch containing
a curved spine ; the metathorax transverse, its anterior margin
arched, the lateral and posterior margins curved inwards, the
posterior angles produced into a sharp spine ; the nodes of the
abdomen transverse, armed on each side with a sharp spine which
is bent backwards ; legs four-sided, the section of which is a
square. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, narrowly margined;
longitudinally and finely rugulose, most strongly so at the base.
This species is in the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq., who
kindly lent it me for description.
16. Cryptocerus cordaius, newr sp. (PI. XXI. fig. 3.)
Worker. — Length S lines. Black, finely punctured, thinly
covered with glittering silvery scales; the head deeply emarginate
in front, the sides rounded anteriorly, notched on each side over
the eyes; the head truncate posteriorly, the lateral angles slightly
obliquely truncate; — the head rufo-testaceous on each side ante-
riorly. The thorax rounded in front, produced laterally into a
flattened margin, the angles of which are acute anteriorly, the
sides curved and notched posteriorly, forming a small sharp tooth
on each side, between vphich is a transverse suture ; the posterior
portion of the thorax is bidentate on each side, the anterior tooth
beinnf the largest, and curving slightly backwards ; the basal
margin of this portion of the thorax notched on each side, forming
a blunt tooth in the centre. The two nodes of the abdomen are
transverse, the anterior one being the widest; each is produced
laterally into teeth or spines, which are bent backwards ; the
abdomen is heart-shaped, slightly margined at the base, the basal
margins laterally testaceous.
Hab. Santarem, Brazil.
Mr. Bates, in a note on this species, observes, "Swarms of this
small species, all individuals of the same size, are seen on branches
and flowers of Byrsominse and other trees on dry sandy campos."
The single specimen sent is unique in the Collection of the
17. Cryptocerus pusillus. (PI. XX. fig. 8.)
Black : head dilated before the eyes on each side, the sides
of the Genus Cryptocerus. 221
Cryptocerus pusillus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R.
Length 2 J lines.
Hab. Brazil ; Demerara.
In the Collection of the British Museum, and of J. O. West-
18. Cryptocerus minuius.
Black : head depressed, marginate, the margin pale testaceous,
thorax having anteriorly on each side a bent spine ; abdomen
margined at the base, the margin pale testaceous.
Length 2 lines.
.Hab. S. America.
Cryptocerus minutus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 425, 5 ; Klug, Entom.
Monog. 202, 2 ; Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 426, 2.
19. Cryptocerus Pinelii.
Dark brown: head and thorax without spines, petiole and ab-
domen pale yellow ; the entire insect punctate.
Cryptocerus Pinelii, Guerin, Icon. R. Anira. 425.
Length 3J lines.
Hab. Moro-Gueimado, Brazil.
20. Cryptocerus complanatus.
Opaque black ; posterior angles of the head without spines ;
thorax wide in front, narrowing towards the abdomen ; nodes of
the abdomen transverse ; spined at the sides ; abdomen ovate.
Cryptocerus complanatus, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 424 (Neuter).
Length 3^ lines.
21. Cryptocerus Pavonii,
Cryptocerus Pavonii, Latr. Gen. Crust. Ins. 132.
Hab. South America.
22. Cryptocerus unimaculatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 9.)
Neuter. — Length 3 lines. Head and thorax black ; disc of the
head rugose, most deeply so on the vertex; the raised lateral
margins ferruginous, terminating opposite the eyes ; scape of the
antennae and the flagellum beneath ferruginous ; the thorax
rugose, the anterior angles produced into a stout blunt spine ; the
222 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
posterior angles have also a longer stout acute spine, the legs black ;
the head and thorax are both sprinkled with short bright golden
hairs ; each node of the abdomen has on each side an acute spine.
Abdomen ovate, emarginate at the base ; an oblong black stripe
runs from the apex to the middle of the abdomen; beneath black.
This appears to be a rare species ; I have only seen the single
specimen in my own Collection.
23. Cryplocerus dlscocephalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 2.)
Neuter. — Length 2J lines. Entirely ferruginous, the entire
margin of the head curving upwards, forming the exact model of
a dish or bowl, which has a few large scattered punctures within ;
the posterior angles of the head produced laterally, and bent
slightly upwards ; the thorax without spines, somewhat oblong-
quadrate, but narrower posteriorly ; nodes of the abdomen trans-
verse, acute at their outer angles ; abdomen elongate-ovate, deeply
emarginate at the base ; legs very short and stout.
Of this remarkable species I have only seen two specimens, one
in the Collection at the British Museum, and one in my own.
24. Cryptocerus causiicus,
Formica caustica, Pohl and Kollar, Braz. Insect. 17. Tab.
Cryptocerus caustica, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 426.
25. Cryptocerus elegans, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 3.)
^Neuter, — Length 2J lines. Head, antennae and legs rufo-tes-
taceous ; margins of the head broadly expanded at the sides, nar-
rowly so behind, and of a pale testaceous hue ; eyes black ;
mandibles rufo-testaceous. Thorax elongate, rounded in front,
its lateral angles produced into spines curving backwards ; the
metathorax has three teeth on each side ; the shoulders and
teeth at the sides of the thorax pale testaceous ; the posterior
femora testaceous, and having a minute tooth above ; the first
node of the abdomen rounded in front, curving outwardly at the
sides to half its length, then abruptly curving inwards on each
• Mr. H. W. Bates, in a note on this species, observes : — " This pretty little
species was found swimming nimbly over the broad leaves of Heticoniic in a
moist forest. I have not yet detected its male or female, but suppose its nest to
be made in the hollow branches of trees like the other species."
of the Genus Cryptocerus. 223
side, forming a narrow footstalk to the broad portion ; the second
is somewhat square, having on each side anteriorly a broad bent
flattened spine. Abdomen heart-shaped, having on each side, at
the base, a large ovate pale testaceous macula, and a little beyond
the middle on each side a pale transverse stripe : the entire insect
is covered with shallow punctures, and sprinkled with very short
glittering hairs or scales.
Hab. Columbia ; Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq.
In the Collections of the British Museum, and of J. O. West-
26. Cryptocerus hcemorrkoldalis.
Opaque-black : the head without spines, large and nearly square,
the lateral margins of the head ferruginous ; abdomen ovate, the
sides marginate, at the apex a large red spot, divided in the middlle
by a longitudinal black line.
Formica hamorrhoidalis, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 276.
Cryptocerus hcemorrhoidalis, St. Farg, H3rm, I. 172, 3.
Length 2J lines.
Hab. St. Domingo.
27. Cryptocerus Araneolus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 4.)
Neuter. — I i lines. Dull reddish brown : the lateral margins of
the head raised and expanded before the eyes ; at the eyes the
margins are notched, the raised margins ferruginous, the extreme
apex of the antennae pale testaceous. Thorax oblong, gradually
narrowing towards the abdomen, divided in the middle by a trans-
verse suture, the lateral margins crenulated. Legs short and
stout ; the nodes of the abdomen transverse, and furnished on each
side with an acute spine. Abdomen ovate, marginate, and emar-
ginate at the base ; the whole insect covered with shallow punc-
tures, each of which contains a bright golden hair.
Hab. St. Vincent's.
In the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq. and in my own.
28. Cryptocerus rimosus.
Cryptocerus rimosus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, Tom. xii. I. 65.
29. Cryptocerus pubescens, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 4.)
Female. — Length 2 lines. Brown-ferruginous : the head late-
rally in front has a slightly raised margin. Thorax quadrate,
the anterior margin waved, the sides curving outwardly, the
224 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
posterior margin curving invvards and waved, notched in the
middle, the four angles acute. A little before the posterior
angles the sides produced into an angular tooth. The meta-
thorax has on each side an acute spine, which as well as the
first node of the abdomen is hidden by the projection of the
disc ; the second node half-circular or half-moon shaped. Ab-
domen nearly rotundate, a dark stain runs down the centre, acute
at the base and gradually widening to the margin of the first
segment ; the entire insect is covered with erect pale hairs.
Hab. Adelaide, N. S. Wales.
In my own Collection.
Genus 2. Meranoplus.
Sexes three, male, female and worker, or neuter. Female. — Sides
of the head not expanded ; antennae inserted before and above the
eyes on each side at the base of the clypeus, the basal joint or
scape nearly as long as the flagellum ; in repose, received into a
lateral channel or groove above the eyes in the sides of the head,
passing beyond them and nearly reaching the vertex. Wings, the
superior pair having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal
cell, each being of about equal length ; the discoidal cell sub-
quadrate. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, attached to the
thorax by two elongate nodes.
1. Meranoplus bicolor. (PI. XX. fig. 6.)
Head and thorax ferruginous ; abdomen black ; head without
spines ; metathorax posteriorly armed with a long acute spine on
Cryptocerus bicolor, Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 425.
Length If lines.
2. Meranoplus pet'iolalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 7.)
Female. — Length 3| lines. Head bright ferruginous ; antennas
dark rufo-testaceous ; the thorax of the same colour, longitudi-
nally rugose, the lateral margins of the thorax parallel to the base
of the wings, from whence the sides are narrowed considerably to
the metathorax, whicli on each side has a short tooth ; wings pale,
nervures pale ferruginous ; legs ferruginous ; the nodes of the
abdomen sub-quadrate ; abdomen ovate, rufo-testaceous, and irre-
gularly stained with black ; beneath black, and having a large
rufous patch in the middle, which has a black stain in the centre ;
the entire insect has a thinly scattered erect pale pubescence.
of the Genus Cryptocervs. 225
A rare species apparently. I have only seen the single speci-
men in my own Collection.
Genus Cataulacus, new gen.
Sexes three, male, female and neuter, or worker. Female.—
The sides of the head not expanded, the eyes not concealed. An-
tennae inserted before the eyes ; in repose, received into an oblique
groove or channel in the cheek ; scape of the antennae grooved
beneath for the reception of the basal portion of the flagellum.
Wings having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal cell,
the discoidal cells obsolete. Abdomen elongate in the female,
ovate in the workers or neuters.
Male not known.
1. Cataulacus Taprohance, Westw. MSS„ new sp. (PI. XX,
Neuter.— -Length 2 lines. Black : the head and thorax roughly
longitudinally rugose, the vertex behind, and a small central por-
tion of the thorax, anteriorly transversely rugose ; the antennae
rufo-testaceous. the scape and extreme apex pale ; sides of the
head and thorax crenulated, the posterior angles of the latter
armed with a stout spine ; the tibiae and tarsi rufo-testaceous.
The nodes of the abdomen coarsely sculptured ; abdomen ovate,
finely shagreened, and longitudinally and delicately rugose at the
base and sides, the rugosity consisting of a series of raised striae
which do not reach the middle of the abdomen excepting at the
This species is unique in the Collection of the Entomological
Society, to which it was presented by Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites,
who captured it in Ceylon.
2. Cataulacus Guineensis, Westw. MSS., new sp. (PI. XX.
A^eiiier.— Length Sf lines. Black : head and thorax longitudi-
nally rugose-striate, most deep and coarse on the thorax; sides of
the head crenulate, the scape ferruginous, apical joint of the
flagellum testaceous, the palpi testaceous. Thorax, the anterior
portion transverse and inclining downwards towards the head, the
sides crenulate, the posterior angles acute ; behind the transverse
portion the thorax becomes much narrower towards the meta-
thorax, from which it is separated by a transverse deep suture;
VOL. II. N.S. PART VII. JAN, 1854.
226 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph
posterior angles of the tnetathorax produced into an elongate stout
acute spine ; the tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen ovate,
finely granulate, the nodes deeply and coarsely sculptured ; the
entire insect is sprinkled with erect pubescence.
Hab. Tropical Western Africa.
Unique in the Collection of J. O. VVestwood, Esq., who kindly
lent it to me for description.
3. Cataulacus parallelus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 6.)
Female. — Length 3J lines. Black : the head longitudinally
rugose-striate, the vertex emarginate, the emargination trans-
versely rugose-striate ; the scape of the antennas and extreme
apex of the flagellum ferruginous. Thorax longitudinally rugose-
striate ; the metathorax on each side produced into a stout sharp
bent spine, beneath which it is transversely sulcate ; wings tinged
with yellow, their nervures pale testaceous ; the tibiae and tarsi
ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen coarsely sculptured
transversely, the second longitudinally so. Abdomen oblong-
quadrate, finely aciculate at the base, beyond which it is delicately
shagreened, and has towards the apex a few short scattered pale
Hab. Cape of Good Hope.
Apparently a rare species ; I have only seen the specimen in my
4. Cataulacus granulatus.
Formica granulata, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 275, tab. 1 2, fig. 75.
Cryptocerus granulatus, St. Farg. Hymenop. I. 171, 2.
Opaque-black, granulated, the posterior angles of the head
armed with a spine, sides of the head not produced, the eyes
Length l-f lines. -
Genus 3. Daceton.
Formica, pt. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Fourm.
Daceton, Perty, Delect. An. Art.
Sp. 1. Daceton armigerum. (PI. XXI. figs, 1, 2.)
Formica armigera, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 244, tab. ix. fig. 58
Attal armigera, Guer; Icon. R. Anim. 221, tab. 69, fig. 2.
Daceton armigerum, Perty, Delect. An. Art. Bras. tab.
Female. — Pale rufo-testaceous, head heart-shaped, ocelli placed
in a triangle on the vertex ; thorax not quite so wide as the head,
of the Genus Cryptocerus. 227
the anterior angles produced into short acute spines, the posterior
angles armed with short stout obtuse spines ; anterior wings having
one elongate marginal cell nearly reaching the apex of the wing,
and of nearly equal width throughout, truncate at the apex, one
marginal cell complete, and one discoidal cell ; nodes of the abdo-
men without spines ; abdomen ovate, pointed at the apex.
Male. — Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black ; on the sides
of the head and face a little scattered hoary pubescence, the
vertex roughly sculptured longitudinally ; the antennae and mouth
rufo-testaceous, the former as long as the entire insect. Thorax
above having a few long scattered griseous hairs ; the mesothorax
has in front a narrow abbreviated smooth oblong space, a similar
smooth line is also observable parallel with the tegulae ; the post-
scutellum is pale testaceous, wings sub-hyaline, the nervures thick
and of a pale testaceous colour, the marginal cell is occupied by
a fuscous cloud. Legs pale rufo-testaceous ; the nodes of the
abdomen fuscous as well as the sides of the following segment,
the rest of the abdomen ferruginous.
Hab. Brazil (Santarera). Mr. H. W. Bates.
The male and female in the British Museum, the latter also in
my own Collection.
The male and female were captured by Mr. Bates, who says : —
" This species I always find wandering about the trunks of large
trees, not in numerous bands, following in regular order, but
only a few scattered individuals, apparently wandering each on
his own account in pursuit of prey. When observed, they are
seen to carry their mandibles wide open at right angles to the
axis of their bodies ; and when a stalk of grass or any other
article is presented at their heads, they close their jaws with a
sudden snap. I do not know where or how they construct their
nests. I have never seen it occupied in any regular industry, or
associated in great numbers like CEcodoma cephalotes, to which it
appears to be allied."
Genus 4. Orectognathus, new gen.
Head heart-shaped ; eyes prominent, placed forwards on the
sides of the head ; mandibles elongate, projecting forwards in a
line with the body ; antennae elongate, inserted near the base of
the mandibles, 5-jointed in the worker. Thorax narrow, a little
longer than the head ; abdomen attached to the thorax by two
narrow elongate ovate nodes.
228 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph of Cryptocerus.
Sp. 1. Orectognathus antennattis. (PI. XXI. fig. 9.)
Neuter. — Pale rufo-testaceous, the mandibles armed at their
extremity with two long spines or teeth, the upper one simple, the
lower one forked at the apex ; the anterior angles of the thorax
have a short acute spine, a second short one is situated about the
middle at the sides, and tlie metathorax is armed with two longer
slender acute spines ; legs elongate, very pale testaceous. Abdo-
men nearly rotundate, slightly flattened, the first node elongate-
clavate, the second globose.
Hab. New Zealand.
In the Collection of the British Museum.
EXPLANATION OF PLATES.
Fig. 1. Cryptoeentt atralus $ ; 1 <x, labium of do.; 1 b, maxilla of do.; 1 c, labrum
of do.; 1 d, mandible of do.; \e, labium of do. (ueuler);
1 /, maxilla of do. (neuter).
2. atratus (oeutei).
3. elegans ; 3 a, antenna of do.
5. D* Orbigntfanus,
6. Cataulaeut parallelits ; 6 a, front view of the head of do.
7. Crt/ptaeerus argentatus ; 7 a, antenna of do.
Fig. I. Cryptocerus dubitatui,
4. pubescens; 4 a, antenna of do.
5. CatauUtcus Guiiieetisis ; 6a, underside of the head, showing the grooves
for the reception of the antcnnie.
6. Meranoplus bicolor ; 6a, antenna of do.
7. petiotalus ; 7a, antenna of do.
8. Cryptocerui pusiUus ; 8 a, antenna of do,
10. Cataulacus Taprobuna,
Fig. 1 . Cryptocerus clypeatus, g .
2. do. do.' $.
5. Head of C. clypeatus (neuter).
6. Thorax of do.
7. Daceton armigerum, ^ .
8. do. do. 2-
9. Orectognathus antennaius (neuter); 9a, mandible of do.; 9b, antenna
of do. ; 9 c, metathorax of do.
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